Kutai Kartanegara Sultanate | The History of Kutai Kartanegara Sultanate
In ancient Indonesian perspective, Kutai Kingdom is the oldest kingdom in Indonesia. This is proven with the finding of 7 inscriptions written on yupa (stone monument) in Sanskrit language and using Pallavan letters. Based on its paleography, the writing is assumed to be rooted from the 5th century AD.
From these inscriptions, it is known that there once was a kingdom under the reign of King Mulawarman, the son of Aswawarman, the grandson of Mahraja Kudungga. The kingdom is called Kutai Martadipura Kingdom, which was located across the Muara Kaman River.
In the beginning of 12th century AD, there was a kingdom located in Tepian Batu (Kutai Lama) called Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom with its first King, Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325).
With these two Kingdoms in existence in area of Mahakam River, inevitably that would of course trigger the friction between two of them. In 16th century AD, there was a battle by these two Kutai Kingdom.
The Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom under the rule of its King Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa finally won the battle and conquered Kutai Martadipura Kingdom. The king then named the kingdom into Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura Kingdom.
In 17th century AD, Islam religion was well-embraced by Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom. Furthermore, many Islamic names were finally used by Kings and royal family of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom. The designation of King is then changed into Sultan. The first Sultan who used an Islamic Name is Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris (1735-1778).
In 1732, the Capital of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom was moved from Kutai Lama to Pemarangan.
Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris who was the son-in-law of Sultan Wajo Lamaddukelleng departed to Wajo Land, South Sulawesi to fight against VOC along with Bugis people. The government of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom was temporarily managed by Guardianship Council.
In 1739, Sultan A.M Idris died in a battlefield. After the death of Sultan Idris, there was a battle for power of the kingdom by Aji Ado. The crown prince Aji Imbut who was still very young at that time was taken to flee to Wajo. Aji Kado then announced officially as Sultan Kutai Kartanegara using the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin.
After grown up, Aji Imbut as the legitimate crown prince of the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom returned to Kutai. Then, Aji Imbut was crowned as the Sultan Kutai Kartanegara with title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin by Bugis people and royal relatives who were still loyal to the late Sultan Idris. The coronation of Sultan Muslihuddin was held in Mangkujenang (Samarinda Seberang). And that was the start of the resistance against Aji Kado.
The resistance was carried out using embargo tactic by Mangkujenang to the Pemarangan. The Sulu pirate fleet was involved in this resistance and commenced an attack and hijack Pemarangan. In 1779, Aji ado requested the assistance from VOC but it was rejected.
In 1780, Aji Imbut succeeded in taking over the throne and the capital of Pemarangan and he was officially crowned as the Sultan using the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin in the Kutai Kartanegara Palace. Aji Kado was sentenced to death and was burried in Jembayan Island.
Aji Imbut who was entitled as Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin changed the Capital of Kutai Kertanegara to Tepian Pandan in September 27, 1782. This change was done to eliminate the bitter memory of the Aji Kado regime and Pemarangan was considered lost the power.
The name of Tepian Pndan is then change to Tangga Arung which means Rumah Raja (Home of the King), however, later in the history, Tangga Arung is more popular with the name of Tenggarong until nowadays.
In 1838, the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom was ruled by Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin after Aji Imbut passed away on that year.
In 1844, 2 trade ship led by James Erskine Murray of British entered the Tenggarong water. Murray came to Kutai to established a trade relationship and requested a site to build trading posts and also exclusive right to operate the steam boat in Mahakam water.
However, Sultan A.M. Salehuddin permitted Murray to trade only within Samarinda territory. Murray was still unsatisfied with this offer. After few days in Tenggarong water, Murray unleashed the canon shot towards the palace and was responded by Kutai army. The battle was unavoidable. The army led by Murray was finally lost and escaped to the sea. Five men were wounded and three men were dead from the Murray fleet, and Murray himself was among the dead.
The battle of Tenggarong was finally heard by the British. Actually the British intended to commence an counter attack to Kutai, however the Dutch claim that Kutai is its territory and Dutch will settle the matter by its own way. Then the Dutch sent a fleet under the command of t?Hooft equipped with full weaponry.
On its Arrival in Tenggarong, t?Hooft fleet attach the Kutai Palace. Sultan A.M Salehuddin fleed to Kota Bangun. The commander of Kutai, Awang Long entitled Pangeran Senopati along with his army was bravely fighting t'Hoof fleet to defend the honor of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom. Awang Long died in badly unequal battle and the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom finally lost and surrender to the Dutch.
In October 11th, 1844, Sultan A.M Salehuddin had to sign the agreement with the Dutch which states that Sultan admit the Ducth government and obey its representative in Borneo, which is a Residence located in Banjarmasin.
In 1846, H. von Dewall became the first Dutch civil administrator in East Coast of Borneo.
In 1850, Sultan A.M Sulaiman held the throne of Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura Kingdom.
In 1853, the government of the Dutch positioned J. Zwager as the Assistant of Residence in Samarinda. At that time, the political and economical power was still in the hand of Sultan A.M. Sulaiman (1850-1899).
In 1863, Kutai Kartanegara once again held an agreement with the Dutch. In this agreement, it was agreed that Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom will be part of Dutch government.
In 1888, the first coal mine in Kutai was opened in Batu Panggal by Dutch mining engineer, J.H. Menten. Menten also laid the foundation of the first oil exploitation in Kutai. The prosperity in Kutai territory became so prominent that it made the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom so famous at that time. The royalty from the natural resource exploitation in Kutai was given to the Sultan Sulaiman.
In 1899, Sultan Sulaiman died and was replaced by Sultan Aji Muhammad Alimuddin.
In 1907, the first Catholic mission was established in Laham. A year later, the territory of Mahakam upper stream was given to the Dutch with compensation of 12.990 Gulden per year to Sultan Kutai Kartanegara.
Sultan Alimuddin only held the throne for 11 years, he died in 1910. Because at that time the crown prince Aji Kaget is still immature, the government of Kutai Kartanegara was managed by the Guardianship Council led by Aji Pangeran Mangkunegoro.
In November 14th, 1920, Aji Kaget was crowned as Sultan Kutai Kartanegara entitled Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit.
Since the beginning of 20th century, the economy of Kutai developed rapidly as the result of establishment of Borno-Sumatra Trade Co. In those years, the revenue of Kutai grew steadily by its surplus of every year. Until 1924, Kutai has the funding of 3.280.000 Gulden ? an amazing number at that time.
In 1936, Sultan A.M. Parikesit built new strong and glorious palace of concrete construction. The construction lasted for one year to complete.
When Japan invaded Kutai in 1942, Sultan Kutai must surrender to Tenno Heika, the Japanese Emperor. Japan gave the Sultan an honorary title ?Koo? with the new name of the Kingdom: Kooti.
Indonesia gained its independence in 1945. Two years later, the Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom with status of Daerah Swapraja into the Federation of East Borneo along with other Kingdoms such as Bulungan, Sambaliung, Gunung Tabu and Pasir which then established a Kingdom Council. Later in December 27th, 1949 it joined United States of Indonesia.
The Region of Swapraja Kutai was then changed into Daerah Istimewa Kutai (Special Territory of Kutai) which is the autonomous / special territory equal to regency based on Emergency Act No. 3 Year 1953.
In 1959, Based on Law No. 27 Year 1959 concerning "The Establishment of Level-II Region in Borneo", The Special Territory of Kutai was divided into 3 Level-II Regions, includes:
1. Level-II Region of Kutai, with the Capital of Tenggarong.
2. Municipal of Balikpapan with the Capital of Balikpapan.
3. Municipal of Samarinda with the Capital of Samarinda.
On January 20th, 1960, held in Governor Complex of Samarinda, A.P.T. Pranoto who was the Governor of East Borneo, on behalf of State Affair Minister of Republic of Indonesia, inducted and taken a vow of 3 head of swatantra regency, who are:
1. A.R. Padmo as the Regent of Level-II Kutai.
2. Kapt. Soedjono as the Mayor of Samarinda Municipal.
3. A.R. Sayid Mohammad as the Mayor of Balikpapan Municipal.
One day later, on January 21st, 1960, in Palace Hall of Kutai, Tenggarong there was a Special Meeting held by the Regional House of Representative of Special Territory of Kutai. The focus of this meeting was the handover of government from Head of Special Territory of Kutai, Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit to Aji Raden Padmo, as the Regent of Level-II Region of Kutai, Kapten Soedjono (Mayor of Samarinda) and A.R. Sayid Mohammad (Mayor of Balikpapan). The government of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom under the reign of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit was over, and the Sultan became a common man.
In 1999, Regent of Kutai Kartanegara Drs. H. Syaukani HR, MM intended to reestablish the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara ing Martadipura. This establishment was not meant to revoke the feudalism in region, but as the effort to conserve the historical and cultural heritage of Kutai Kingdom as the oldest Kingdom in Indonesia. Besides, the reestablishment of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom was meant to support the tourism sector in East Borneo in order to attract the domestic or foreign tourists.
November 17th, 2000, the Regent of Kutai Kartanegara along with the crown prince of Kutai, H. Aji Pangeran Praboe Anoem Soerja Adiningrat visited Indonesian President Abdurahman Wahid in Jakarta to consult their intention. President Wahid agreed and blessed the reestablishment of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom by the descendants of Kutai's Sultan, the crown prince of H. Aji Pangeran Praboe.
In September 22nd, 2001, the Crown Prince of Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom, H. Aji Pangeran Praboe Anoem Soerya Adiningrat was coronated as the Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara entitled Sultan H. Aji Muhammad Salehuddin II. The coronation of H.A.P. Praboe as the King of Kutai Kartanegara was held on September 22nd, 2001.